H.Wow Did the Taliban manage to defeat the United States in such an uncontroversial conflict, despite being defeated in the months leading up to the fall of 2001? The defeat of the West is due to the poor vision of Afghanistan by experts from think tanks, governments, universities, international and Afghan NGOs, and private companies. This vision is the work of an imaginary humanist who sees Afghan society as local in his concerns and resists the presence of the state in any form. The notion of a culture of opposition to Kabul, though contradictory to recent historiography, has appeared in reports, articles and books on Western intervention, and even in official discourse.
General Stanley McChrystal said in his commander’s preliminary assessment of taking over command of Western forces in 2009: ‘Historical grievances strengthen ties with tribal or ethnic identity and can reduce the appeal of a central state. All races, especially the Pashtuns, have traditionally sought a degree of independence from the central government. Most experts described a local reality as ‘near’, ‘legitimate’ and ‘natural’, as opposed to a ‘distant’, ‘illegitimate’ and ultimately ‘artificial’ state. In this view, physical intimacy, contrary to the cold bureaucratic logic of the state, guaranteed familiarity and personal relationships.
Institutions responsible for ‘development’ often use the same received idea, enabling them to outperform existing state apparatus. Gaining local legitimacy by ignoring the Afghan government in favor of local assemblies (jirgas, shuras). They were traditionally presented by international aid organizations, but in reality they made them (as with village councils in the World Bank’s National Solidarity Program). Deciding locally also gave ethnic policies a racial dimension. Pashtun traditions violated basic law, such as inheritance and marriage, and Uzbeks, Hazaras and Tajiks.[…]
Full article: 2,864. the words
Adam Becks. &
Adam Becksco is a researcher and author at the Center National de la Richter Scientific – Center de Richter International (CNRS-CERI). War on the law: Taliban courts in Afghanistan. (War in Law: Taliban Courts of Afghanistan), CNRS-Editions, Paris, 2021 Giles Doronsoro is a researcher and author at the European Center for Sociology and Political Science (CESSP), University of Paris 1. International Government of Afghanistan: Such an Expected Defeat. (International Government of Afghanistan: Such Expected Defeat), Carthage, Paris, 2021.
(3.) US Army and Marine Corps US Army / Marine Corps Counter-Insurgency Field Manual, University of Chicago Press, 2007.
(4.) Jim Gent, One Tribe at a Time: Strategies for Success in Afghanistan, Nine Sisters Import, Los Angeles, 2009.
(5.) In Brent Glatzer, The Pashtun Tribal System, George Pfeiffer and Deepak Kumar Behera (EDS), Contemporary Society: The Concept of Tribal Society Taswar Publishers, New Delhi, 2002.
(6.) Ronald E. Newman, World War II: Winning and losing in Afghanistan, Potomac Books, Lincoln, Nebraska, 2011.
(9.) Deoband Madrasa (India) was established in 1867 in response to British colonialism.
(10) The following are excerpts from Adam Boxko, War on the law: Taliban courts in Afghanistan. (War in Law: Afghanistan’s Taliban Courts), Paris, CNRS – editions, 2021.